Insults, Criminalisation, and Calls for Violence: Forms of Hate Speech and Offensive Language in German User Comments on Immigration
AutorInnen: Paasch-Colberg, Sünje; Trebbe, Joachim; Strippel, Christian; Emmer, Martin Publikationsjahr: 2022
This chapter studies target groups, forms, and intensities of hate speech in German user comments on refugees and immigration, and considers offensive comments that are below the line of hate speech but can potentially escalate online discussions and provoke hate speech. The analysis uses a modularised framework that goes beyond the common “hate/no-hate” dichotomy in the field. Results show that offensive language is used significantly more often than hate speech in user comments. While statements with offensive language are predominantly directed against politicians, hate speech statements are mostly targeting refugees and immigrants. Comments that stereotype refugees and Muslims as criminals portraying them as a danger are noteworthy, while extreme forms of hate speech, such as calls for violence and killing, are rare in the sample.
Keywords: Content analysis; User comment; Hate speech; Text annotation; Refugees; Social mediadoi: 10.1007/978-3-030-92103-3_6 ISBN: 978-3-030-92102-6