Judging Without Knowing: how people evaluate others based on phenotype and country of origin - Technical Report.
This report describes the design, data, and main results of an online survey (i.e., the “Judging Without Knowing” survey) that was conducted between October 2017 and June 2018 with more than 2,000 registered members on Clickworker (a commercial survey company in Germany). The survey was conducted in order to provide a post-hoc test of the stimulus material (photos) that was used in two correspondence tests on labor market discrimination (i.e., the ADIS and GEMM studies) and to enable further analyses on the role of ethnic stereotypes for ethnic discrimination in hiring. The survey consisted of two parts. The first part of the survey was a post-hoc validation study that aimed at providing an empirical test of the comparability of the photos (phenotype stimuli) from the ADIS and GEMM studies with regard to attractiveness, (ascribed) competence, and sympathy. The second part of the survey studied the stereotypes Germans have about different immigrant groups in Germany. In contrast to previous studies, we asked respondents to rate in how far a range of bipolar adjectives that belong to different stereotype content models (i.e., SCM, 2d-ABC model, and facet model) fit for 38 different ethnic origin groups. In addition, we randomly varied whether respondents had to provide their personal view (“I think ...”) or their view of the nationally shared stereotype (“Germans think ...”). Overall, our findings show that respondents evaluated the photos from the ADIS and GEMM studies differently – but most differences were not substantial. Evaluations differed more strongly between respondents than between photos, and more strongly between photos of males and females and photos series (i.e., original photos and photos that were adjusted with image processing software) than between phenotype groups. The stereotype survey suggests that instruction matters. Respondents rate the different origin groups more positively when asked to express their own opinion than when asked to state the opinion of the Germans. Second, our results raise doubts as for whether Communion is the primary dimension when it comes to stereotypes about immigrant groups in Germany. Ascribed Capacity, Beliefs, and Power seem more important than ascribed Communion. Finally, there seems to be a main divide between the (poor) global south and the (wealthy) global north. Stereotypes about immigrant groups from the global south are generally more negative than stereotypes about immigrants from the global north.