Social deprivation, gender and obesity: multiple stigma?
Untertitel: Results of a population survey from Germany
AutorInnen: Makowski, Anna; Kim, Tae Jun; Luck-Sikorski, Claudia; von dem Knesebeck, Olaf Publikationsjahr: 2019
Objectives: Individuals with obesity are subject to stigmatisation, resulting in discrimination. Studies focusing on obesity stigma often do not account for social conditions that also may be associated with stigmatisation. Following an intersectional approach, social categories such as gender and socioeconomic status (SES) can interact and form a basis for multiple stigma. The present study analyses differences in public obesity stigma depending on gender and SES, as well as possible interdependencies between these social categories.
Design: Representative cross-sectional telephone survey.
Participants: 692 randomly selected adults (≥ 18 years) in Germany.
Methods: Different vignettes were presented, depicting a lawyer (male/female) or a janitor/cleaner (male/female) with obesity. Following the vignette, different components of stigma were assessed: (1) fat phobia, (2) emotional reactions to a person with obesity and (3) desire for social distance. Associations between gender, SES and stigma components were tested in multiple linear regression analyses.
Results: A low SES in the obesity vignette (janitor/cleaner) was significantly associated with higher fat phobia scores as well as desire for social distance, compared with the vignette with a person with obesity and a high SES (lawyer). Being a male with obesity was significantly associated with more pronounced negative emotional reactions and greater desire for social distance. There were no significant interaction effects between gender and SES.
Conclusions: Results support the hypothesis of multiple stigma. Being male or of low SES was significantly associated with more pronounced negative attitudes in the German public. Following the concept of intersectionality, our findings indicate that obesity stigma can exacerbate pre-existing inequalities. This needs to be considered in development and implementation of prevention and anti-stigma measures.doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2018-023389 Open Access